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Nov 21 2019

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Kidney foundation pickup-Looking for Juvenile diabetes mellitus? Find out information about Juvenile diabetes mellitus. or , chronic disorder of glucose glucose, dextrose, or grape sugar, monosaccharide sugar with the empirical formula C6H12O6 . This carbohydrate occurs in… Explanation of Juvenile diabetes mellitus

diabetes mellitus

The Disorder

The lack of insulin results in an inability to metabolize glucose, and the capacity to store glycogen glycogen
, starchlike polysaccharide (see carbohydrate) that is found in the liver and muscles of humans and the higher animals and in the cells of the lower animals. Chemically it is a highly branched condensation polymer of glucose; it is readily hydrolyzed to glucose.
. Click the link for more information. (a form of glucose) in the liver and the active transport of glucose across cell membranes are impaired. The symptoms are elevated sugar levels in the urine and blood, increased urination, thirst, hunger, weakness, weight loss, and itching. Prolonged hyperglycemia (excess blood glucose) leads to increased protein and fat catabolism, a condition that can cause premature vascular degeneration and atherosclerosis (see arteriosclerosis arteriosclerosis
, general term for a condition characterized by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the blood vessels. These changes are frequently accompanied by accumulations inside the vessel walls of lipids, e.g.
. Click the link for more information. ). Uncontrolled diabetes leads to diabetic acidosis, in which ketones build up in the blood. Patients have sweet-smelling breath, and may suffer confusion, unconsciousness, and death. There are two distinct types of diabetes mellitus: insulin-dependent and noninsulin-dependent.

Insulin-dependent Diabetes

Insulin-dependent diabetes (Type I), also called juvenile-onset diabetes, is the more serious form of the disease; about 10% of diabetics have this form. It is caused by destruction of pancreatic cells that make insulin and usually develops before age 30. Type I diabetics have a genetic predisposition to the disease. There is some evidence that it is triggered by a virus that changes the pancreatic cells in a way that prompts the immune system to attack them. The symptoms are the same as in the non-insulin-dependent variant, but they develop more rapidly and with more severity. Treatment includes a diet limited in carbohydrates and saturated fat, exercise to burn glucose, and regular insulin injections, sometimes administered via a portable insulin pump. Transplantation of islet cells has also proved somewhat successful since 1999, after new transplant procedures were developed, but the number of pancreases available for extraction of the islet cells is far smaller than the number of Type I diabetics. Patients receiving a transplant must take immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection of the cells, and many ultimately need to resume insulin injections, but despite that transplants provide real benefits for some whose diabetes has become difficult to control.

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes

Noninsulin-dependent diabetes (Type 2), also called adult-onset diabetes, results from the inability of the cells in the body to respond to insulin. About 90% of diabetics have this form, which is more prevalent in minorities and usually occurs after age 40. Although the cause is not completely understood, there is a genetic factor and 90% of those affected are obese. As in Type I diabetes, treatment includes exercise and weight loss and a diet low in total carbohydrates and saturated fat. Some individuals require insulin injections; many rely on oral drugs, such as sulphonylureas, metformin, acarbose or another alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, thiazolidinediones, or dipeptidyl peptidase–4 (DPP-4) inhibitors.

Complications

Diabetes affects the way the body handles fats, leading to fat accumulation in the arteries and potential damage to the k >dialysis
, in chemistry, transfer of solute (dissolved solids) across a semipermeable membrane. Strictly speaking, dialysis refers only to the transfer of the solute; transfer of the solvent is called osmosis.
. Click the link for more information. or k >transplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
. Click the link for more information. ). Most cases of acquired blindness blindness,
partial or complete loss of sight. Blindness may be caused by injury, by lesions of the brain or optic nerve, by disease of the cornea or retina, by pathological changes originating in systemic disorders (e.g.
. Click the link for more information. in the United States are caused by diabetes. Diabetes can also affect the nerves, causing numbness or pain in the face and extremities. A complication of insulin therapy is insulin shock, a hypoglycemic condition that results from an oversupply of insulin in relation to the glucose level in the blood (see hyperinsulinism hyperinsulinism,
presence in the system of an above-normal amount of insulin, the substance secreted by the pancreas and needed by the body to utilize sugar. An increased amount of insulin in the body results in below-normal amounts of sugar in the system, giving rise to such
. Click the link for more information. ).

Bibliography

See A. Bloom, Diabetes Explained (1973); Portland Area Diabetes Program, Diabetes and Insulin (1988); M. Davidson, Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis and Treatment (1991).

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Kidney foundation pickup

SOURCE: http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Juvenile+diabetes+mellitus


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